The Kingdom of Bahrain
Official name: The Kingdom of Bahrain (Mamlakat al-Baḥrain)
Bahrain is an archipelago of about 36 islands and islets. Its main island – whose 134-metre-high Jabal al-Dukhan (Mountain of Smoke) is its highest point – is called Bahrain Island, or Awal. It lies about 24 kilometres from the Saudi coast, to which is it connected by a causeway. The western coast of Qatar lies about 29 kilometres from Bahrain Island.
The archipelago’s total area is about 720 square kilometres, but this increases continually through land reclamation. Bahrain Island comprises 85 percent of the total land area and measures about 48 kilometres in length and 16 kilometres in breadth, at its widest point. The only other islands with a sizable population or important economic activities are urban Muharraq, linked by two causeways to Bahrain Island, and Sitra, linked by a causeway to Bahrain Island.